"Asad, Bashar al- (1965–)." Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. 2008. HighBeam Research. (April 29, 2016). https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-2830800056.html
"Asad, Bashar al- (1965–)." Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale. 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from HighBeam Research: https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-2830800056.html
Bashar al-Asad (Bashshar al-Assad) is the president of Syria. A trained ophthalmologist, Asad entered politics only in 1994, succeeding to the presidency upon the death of his father, hafiz al-asad, in 2000. Widespread anticipation that the youthful president would bring rapid and substantial economic and political change to Syria was soon dampened when his administration took steps to reassert the authority of the old regime.
Born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, Asad was the third surviving child and second son of Hafiz and Anisa al-Asad. He grew up with an older sister, Bushra, and an older brother, Basil, together with two younger brothers, Mahir and Majid. At the insistence of their father, all of the Asad children completed their early education in Syria. The ethos of the Asad household was somewhat puritanical. The children saw little of their workaholic father but were intensely loyal to him.
Asad completed primary and most of secondary school at the Laique School, now known as the Basil al-Asad School, completing the final two years of secondary school at La Frère School. At the University of Damascus, he studied medicine, specializing in ophthalmology and graduating in 1988. Following obligatory service in the military as an army doctor, he moved to the United Kingdom in 1992 to begin postgraduate training in ophthalmology at the Western Eye Hospital in London. During his two-year stay in the United Kingdom, Asad focused on his medical studies but also gained a far greater exposure to the West than most members of the Syrian elite.
Name: Bashar al-Asad (Bashshar al-Assad)
Birth: 11 September 1965, Damascus, Syria
Family: Wife, Asma Akhras; two sons, Hafiz and Karim; one daughter, Zayn
Education: Laique School, Damascus; Le Frère School, Damascus; University of Damascus, 1988, medicine; Western Eye Hospital, London, 1992–1994, postgraduate training in ophthalmology
The death of his older brother, Basil, in an automobile accident in January 1994 proved to be a life-changing event. Following Bashar's return to Damascus for the funeral, his father replaced Basil with Bashar as the presumed successor to the Syrian presidency. …
Foreign Policy; September 22, 1994
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents; October 31, 1994
Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA); August 11, 2010
The Middle East Journal; October 1, 2006
Middle East Policy; December 22, 2006
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